The European Union is home to a number of nuclear power plants, with the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) of France, the Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) of Germany, the Rez Nuclear Research Institute (UJV) of the Czech Republic, and the Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) all playing a role in their operation. The EU has recently passed a directive that reinforces the role and independence of Europe's national regulators and supports agreed safety objectives for nuclear power plants, in line with recommendations from the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA).The directive also allows students to earn credits in a nuclear discipline outside their host country to obtain the additional qualification of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Cooperation within Europe and between Europe and third countries operates at several different levels, with the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) playing an important role in coordinating safety standards across Europe.It is important to take into account market failures and the need to protect against investment risks in order to create the necessary market conditions for investment in new nuclear construction projects in Europe. The plan's transition fund money will not finance the construction of nuclear power plants, despite the fact that nuclear energy provides 50% of the EU's low-carbon electricity.The Russian capture of Europe's largest nuclear power plant in Zaporizhia, in southern Ukraine, has attracted widespread condemnation after fighting was reported in the vicinity of the nuclear reactor.
The EU also supports nuclear safety through several agencies and programs, such as the TACIS (CIS States) and PHARE (Eastern Europe, including the Baltic States) programs and various funds.The Euratom Treaty provides a stable legal framework that fosters the growth and development of the nuclear industry, while increasing the security of fuel supply for the nuclear industry and the safety of nuclear power plants. The EC recommended that the Euratom Supply Agency be responsible for ensuring a diverse supply of nuclear fuel, both for existing EU nuclear power plants and those that are about to be built. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission will map out where nuclear reactors are currently in operation, where they are undergoing decommissioning processes for closure and where licenses have been granted for new reactors.Despite its heavy dependence on nuclear energy, Slovakia only operates four plants, demonstrating how effective nuclear energy can be. It is clear that understanding Europe's nuclear power plants is essential for understanding how energy is produced and distributed throughout Europe.